Ashland History ‘Firsts’ – Part 3

Who was the first U.S. President to visit Ashland?
When did Ashland get its first shopping mall?
Which Shakespeare play was first performed by Oregon Shakespeare Festival?

First Church and First Church Building

Beginning in 1864, fourteen Methodist families began to meet in their Ashland homes. They ambitiously began raising money for both a church building and a college. 

Ashland First Methodist Church 1908
Methodist Church, photo taken between 1908 and 1915 (from Oregon Encyclopedia, courtesy of Ann Nicgorski)

The original First Methodist Church building first hosted services in 1877, at the corner of North Main Street and Laurel Street. After a windstorm toppled the steeple in 1904, a sturdier church was built on the foundations of the original, and opened its doors in 1908. That is the church you still see today.

First Library

Ashland library can be traced to December 1879, when the Ashland Library and Reading Room Association was created – by women of the community of course. They were able to collect donations of 200 books. In 1891, they got “serious” and created the new Library Association with dues of $1 each per year.

Ashland Library 1891
A large 1891 fundraiser for the new Ashland Library Association.
(photo courtesy of the Ashland Public Library)

By January 1, 1900, the library had 1,200 books and a dedicated room in city hall that was open for reading each Saturday afternoon.

Ashland Library 1912, Carnegie library
The Ashland Carnegie library in 1912
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

In 1909, thirty years after the first library association was formed, Ashlanders received word that the Andrew Carnegie’s foundation would donate $15,000 toward building an Ashland library. The building was dedicated in 1912. It’s still there at the corner of Siskiyou Blvd. and Gresham Street. The Carnegie Foundation funded 1,687 public libraries in USA, 31 of them in Oregon between 1901 and 1915. Of the 31 in Oregon, only 11 are still operating as libraries. Ashland’s library is one of those 11.

Ashland Library 1912 interior
The new Carnegie library interior in about 1912. This area is now the children’s section of the library.
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

The small 1912 Carnegie library building served Ashland until the 1950s, when an extension was built in the rear and the Gresham room was built in the basement level. A much larger expansion took place in 2003, yielding the library we see today.

First Presidential Visit

On September 28, 1880, as stagecoach full of VIPs rolled into Ashland. Very, very important people…the President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes, the First Lady, and Civil War hero General Sherman. The Ashland Tidings estimated 2,000 people gathered in the Plaza to greet the President. It is certainly possible that among the crowd were all 854 residents of Ashland, from the youngest to the oldest.

President Rutherford B. Hayes

According to O’Harra, four young girls presented the President and First Lady a selection of Ashland’s agricultural bounty: peaches, pears, apples, plums, grapes, blackberries, almonds and figs! [O’Harra 1986]

Rutherford B. Hayes was President of the United States from 1877 to 1881. This photo was taken between 1870 and 1880. (photo from Wikimedia Commons)

Lucy Webb Hayes was First Lady, wife of President Hayes. This photo was taken between 1870 and 1880. (photo from Wikimedia Commons)

William Tecumseh Sherman was a famous Union army Civil War General. This photo was taken between 1865 and 1880. (photo from Wikimedia Commons)

First Bank

Henry Beach Carter was a pioneer farmer in Iowa as a young man. Retiring from the farm, he opened a general store in Elkader, and in 1871 established the First National Bank of Elkader, Iowa. When he and his family moved to Ashland in 1884, he duplicated the feat by cofounding the Bank of Ashland.

In this 1909 photo, the 1884 Bank of Ashland building is on the left, and the Masonic building is on the right.
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

The Bank of Ashland building at 15 North Main Street on the Plaza is still there, now the home of Tree House Books. Bank of Ashland was the only bank in town until 1909, and finally went out of business in 1939.

Bank of Ashland building in 2019
Here is the Bank of Ashland building on the Plaza in 2019. (photo by Peter Finkle)

As a side note, I live on Beach Street, named after Ashland pioneer Henry Beach Carter. How many people have a street named after their middle name? Not many, I would guess.

First City Park

Ashland’s first park was probably the 7 ½ acre Chautauqua Park. It was located on land that was purchased in June 1893, after the first Chautauqua meeting in Southern Oregon was moved at the last minute from Central Point to Ashland. The national Chautauqua meetings were one to two week summer program of educational lectures, musical performances, sermons and more. This fit in with Ashland citizens’ strong commitment to education.

Talk about “last minute” – the domed structure large enough to seat 1,000 people was built in only one week, and was completed just one day before the 1893 Chautauqua opened! The last summer for the Chautauqua festival in Ashland was probably 1924. 

You may have heard that the concrete foundation of the 1917 Chautauqua building was incorporated into Oregon Shakespeare Festival’s Allen Elizabethan Theater.

Ashland Chautauqua building 1893
This was the first Chautauqua building in 1893. There was a small park area around it.
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

First Creamery

You may be familiar with the Butler-Perozzi Fountain in Lithia Park. It is named partly for Domingo Perozzi, who in 1895 founded the first creamery in Ashland, located where you’ll now find the winter skating rink on Winburn Way. This was also the first creamery in the entire Jackson County. As a result, his Ashland Creamery thrived, and Perozzi donated funds along with Gwin Butler to purchase the fountain for the 1916 grand opening of Lithia Park. Butler and Perozzi bought the fountain, carved from Verona marble by Italian sculptor Antonio Forilli, at the close of the 1915 San Francisco Pan-Pacific Exposition.

Ashland Creamery c1897
Wagons are lined up at the Perozzi Creamery c1897
(This image from Southern Oregon Historical Society is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)
Lithia Park 1916
This photo shows the Butler-Perozzi Fountain in Lithia Park, probably taken in 1916.
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

First Hospital – is it #1 or #2?

Southern Oregon Hospital c1908
Fordyce-Roper house on East Main Street, converted to a small hospital, photo c1908 
(photo courtesy of Ben Truwe)

#1: In late 1907, the Fordyce-Roper house on East Main Street was converted into a small hospital. Sadly, it was badly damaged by fire in March 1909, though all patients got out safely.

Southern Oregon Hospital fire 1909
1909 fire at the small hospital on East Main Street
(photo courtesy of Ben Truwe)

As the house was being repaired, citizens discussed the need for a larger and more modern hospital. (Side-note: If you want to see the Fordyce-Roper house now, you won’t find it on East Main Street. You will find it if you walk up to the top of 2nd Street, and look to your right at the Winchester Inn. In 1910, the entire house was moved up the steep street by the power of one horse! But that’s a story for another time.)

1923 photo of the Granite City Hospital on Siskiyou Boulevard, now the site of the Stevenson Union at SOU
(This image is part of the Stories of Southern Oregon Collection in the Southern Oregon University Hannon Library digital archives and made available by Southern Oregon University Hannon Library.)

#2: In 1910, the brand new two-story, eighteen-room Granite City Hospital was built. This was a “real” hospital. Designed by noted Southern Oregon architect Frank Clark, it occupied the current site of SOU’s Stevenson Union. 

First “Shopping Mall”

Henry Enders Sr. and family moved to Ashland from Boise, Idaho in 1907. In Idaho, Enders had owned a department store. In Ashland, he built in 1910 what you could call the first shopping mall in Southern Oregon. The Enders Building is located on East Main Street between 1st Street and 2nd Street. The entire group of stores was connected with interior doors, so people could walk from one to another without going outside. Sounds like a shopping mall! 

Enders Building in Ashland, Oregon
The Enders Building on East Main Street, possibly in the 1930s. Note the Columbia Hotel sign.
(photo courtesy of John Enders)

According to Henry Enders Jr.: “Well, we had everything!  We had men’s clothing, furnishings, men’s and ladies’ shoes, ladies’ ready-to-wear, ladies’ dry good and piece goods, a fifteen cent store, a music store, a confectionary, hardware and sporting goods and a grocery store.”  [page 2, History of Ashland Oregon, 1977, as told to Morgan Cottle]

Enders Building 2019
The Enders Building on East Main Street in 2019. Note that the Columbia Hotel is still there.
(photo courtesy of John Enders)

Enders’ shops were popular with more than just Ashland residents. In the 1910s and 1920s, people from other towns would arrive in Ashland on a morning train, spend the day shopping in the Enders shops and seeing the sights of Ashland, and then go home on an afternoon or evening train. Some even stayed overnight at the Columbia Hotel above Enders’ shops, which is still in business at the same location after 110 years.

First Shakespeare Plays

Angus Bowmer moved to Ashland in 1931 to be an English professor at Southern Oregon Normal School. The expanded 1917 Chautauqua dome had been torn down in 1933, but its concrete foundation walls remained. As described on the Oregon Shakespeare Theater’s website, Bowmer “was struck by the resemblance between the Chautauqua walls and some sketches he had seen of Elizabethan theatres.” And today, “The Chautauqua walls remain standing; covered with ivy, they surround the Allen Elizabethan Theatre….” 

Bowmer talked the city into supporting the production of two Shakespeare plays as part of Ashland’s 1935 4th of July holiday celebrations. The city gave him money (“not to exceed $400”) and state funds helped get the stage built. However, the city insisted that afternoon boxing matches be held on the stage as a way to bring in patrons and income.

Bowmer directed and starred in Twelfth Night on July 2 (the first play), Merchant of Venice on July 3, and Twelfth Night again on July 4. To the surprise of non-theater-lovers, income from the many patrons of the evening Shakespeare plays covered losses from the boxing matches.

1935 playbill from “The First Annual Shakespearean Festival” in Ashland  
(from Oregon Shakespeare Festival website)

I hope you have enjoyed this series of brief vignettes of Ashland history “firsts.” 

Here is a link to Part 1 of the series: 

Here is a link to Part 2 of the series:

As part of his contribution to building community, Peter Finkle is walking every street in Ashland and writing an article with photos about every street.  Please subscribe with your email address, and you will be notified each time a new article is published.

References:

Anon. Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon: Containing Original Sketches of many well known Citizens of the Past and Present, Chapman Publishing Company, Chicago, 1904.
Ashland Daily Tidings, February 26, 1927.
Atwood, Kay.  Jackson County Conversations, Jackson County Intermediate Education District, 1975.
Atwood, Kay. Mill Creek Journal: Ashland, Oregon 1850 – 1860, self-published 1987.
Enders, John. Lithia Park: The Heart & Soul of Ashland, 2016.
Green, Giles. A Heritage of Loyalty: The History of the Ashland, Oregon, Public Schools, School District No. 5, 1966.
LaLande, Jeff. from The Oregon Enyclopedia, https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/ashland/#.XdYMxi2ZM2I
Lewis, Raymond (possibly), “Abel D. Helman, Founder of Ashland,” Table Rock Sentinel, October 1981 (Southern Oregon Historical Society).
O’Harra, Marjorie. Ashland: the first 130 years, Northwest Passages Publishing Inc. 1986.
Oregon Shakespeare Festival website. https://www.osfashland.org/en/company/our-history.aspx (accessed 1/22/2020)
Ott, Katherine. History of the Ashland Public Library, 1938 (8 pages).

Walking for Longevity

Surprising research: How many minutes per day should we walk to increase longevity and health?

Since this blog and website is about “Walking Ashland,” I think you might enjoy learning how walking has been shown – in many scientific studies – to improve longevity.  Walking at any age can boost your brain, put pep in your step and extend your life.

What are we “supposed to do?”
(according to scientific experts)

Here’s what.  The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans says we should get moving at least 30 minutes a day for at least 5 days each week. That works out to at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity exercise for the health benefits of exercise.

The guidelines further say that we should exercise for at least 10 minutes at a time to achieve exercise health benefits.

That all makes sense. The Guidelines were written by top experts.  They were based on research.  They must be true.

As with many subjects in life, I have good news and bad news for you.

First, the bad news.

How many of us meet the guidelines?  Most of us say we do…that’s not surprising.  But do we actually?

Ay, there’s the rub (to quote William Shakespeare).  How many of us actually get moving with moderate exercise at least 30 minutes a day for at least 5 days each week (for at least 150 minutes per week total)?

Jared Tucker and two colleagues at North Dakota State University decided to find out.  Here’s what they published in 2011.  They compared self-reporting (what people said about their weekly physical activity) with an objective measurement of their physical activity (people wore an accelerometer for 7 days that measured steps and movement). Drum roll, please…

By self-reporting (on a questionnaire), 62% of U.S. adults in the study said they met the Physical Activity Guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity physical activity.

By objective data (wearing an accelerometer), only 9.6% of U.S. adults in the study met the Physical Activity Guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity physical activity.  (Tucker 2011)

So more than half of the adults who filled out the questionnaire exaggerated, deceived themselves or lied about the amount of physical activity in their daily lives.

Based on the objective data, more than 90% of us are “couch potatoes.”  Ouch.

by Alex Fotos on pixabay

Is there any hope?  

Yes.

Practical Tip: “After every 30 consecutive minutes spent sitting, stand up and move, ideally walking briskly for about five minutes.” (O’Keefe 2018)

A 2018 study showed that people still get the longevity benefit if they walk less than the recommended 150 minutes a week.  Even walking less, they had lower mortality over 13 years than people who were sedentary.  It was a huge study that followed 139,255 people in all.

The researchers concluded:

“In older adults, walking below minimum recommended levels is associated with lower all-cause mortality compared with inactivity. Walking at or above physical activity recommendations is associated with even greater decreased risk.  Walking is simple, free, and does not require any training, and thus is an ideal activity for most Americans, especially as they age.”  (Patel 2018)

If we take walking time per week down a notch, do we still get benefits? 

The answer, according to this 2013 Italian study, is yes.

The study demonstrated longevity benefits from walking only 60 minutes per week…even if you are already 80 years old.  152 elders in Italy who walked at least 15 minutes 4 times a week had a 40% reduced risk of mortality.  Dr. Fortes and colleagues concluded that their study results “suggest an independent and protective effect of walking on mortality and supports the encouragement of physical activity in advanced age for increasing longevity.” (Fortes 2013)

How about if you are really a couch potato and can’t even get out walking for 15 minutes at a time? 

Is there still hope? 

Yes.

2015 research studied 3,626 mostly sedentary Americans who wore an accelerometer to track walking and movement.  The key finding was that just 2 minutes per hour more of light activity, such as walking or light gardening, was associated with a 33% lower risk of dying during the next three years.  (Beddhu 2015)

The Takeaway

If you can’t walk or exercise for 150 minutes each week, walk for as many minutes as you can.

If you can’t walk or exercise for 10 minutes at a time, walk or move for 5 minutes at a time.

If you can’t walk or move for 5 minutes at a time, walk or move for 2 minutes at a time.

You can call them “Baby Steps” or you can call them “Tiny Habits.”

The concept is to set yourself a goal that is so simple your mind can’t find a single excuse to fight it, something like: “I will walk for 2 minutes once a day.”  Almost anyone would think to himself or herself: “Sure, I can do that.  No problem.”

Then, 2 minutes once a day might become 5, then 10, then 15 minutes (or more).  Or it might become 2 minutes (or more) once an hour.  Either way, the key is consistency.

The takeaway is that baby steps or tiny habits, done consistently, can make a huge difference in your life and your health.

So get up walking or moving a few minutes more every hour, a few minutes more every day, and you are likely to live longer and healthier. 

Note: I am not advocating to walk for only 2 minutes at a time!  When it comes to walking, “the more the merrier” applies.  I am advocating to start with what is comfortable for you, and then to build from there…to the guidelines (150 minutes per week) and beyond!

References for the article:

Beddhu, S et al. Light Intensity Physical Activities and Mortality in the United States General Population and CKD Subpopulation, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 10: 1145–1153 2015.

Fortes C et al.  Walking four times weekly for at least 15 min is associated with longevity in a cohort of very elderly people, Maturitas, 2013 Mar; 74(3):246-51.

O’Keefe et al. The Goldilocks Zone for Exercise: Not Too Little, Not Too Much, Missouri Medicine, 2018 Mar-Apr;115(2):98-105.

Patel AV et al.  Walking in Relation to Mortality in a Large Prospective Cohort of Older U.S. Adults, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2018 Jan; 54(1):10-19.

Tucker, JM et al. Physical activity in U.S.: adults compliance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011 Apr;40(4):454-61.

Three Huge Health Benefits of Walking

Three Huge Health Benefits of Walking

Why am I writing an article about the health benefits of walking in a blog about Ashland?  Well, my website is called WalkAshland, isn’t it?  I am walking for the fun of it, and for my own health.  I hope these articles about the streets and neighborhoods of Ashland will inspire others to walk more.  So here is a short introduction to three of the myriad health benefits of walking.

The next time you have a medical check-up, don’t be surprised if your doctor hands you a prescription to walk.” Harvard Medical School report

That is some powerful “medicine!”  Let’s see what Dr. Frieden, the head of the Centers for Disease Control from 2009 – 2017, said about walking.

Ashland is a Great Walking Community

Ashland is a great community to walk in.  Our citizens and city government leaders have made a conscious decision through the decades to keep Ashland as compact as possible, which encourages walking.

Lithia Park is a jewel of a park for taking short or long walks in any season of the year.  Beyond Lithia Park, community leaders committed years ago to create parks near every neighborhood in town, so everyone can relax in “a bit of nature.”

Speaking of nature, from the end of many Ashland streets we can access nature trails that lead into the Siskiyou Mountains and beyond, literally all the way to Canada or Mexico.

A mountain trail starts at the end of Liberty Street

Stress in Your Life?  Walking is an Anti-Stress “Wonder Drug”

Why would your doctor give you a prescription to walk?    The Harvard report goes on to say:

“Walking can even help your mood. A number of studies have found that it’s as effective as drugs for decreasing depression. It can help relieve everyday stresses, too. Tension starts to ease as the road stretches out in front of you. Mood-elevating endorphin levels increase.” (Harvard 2017)

When it comes to stress in life, it doesn’t get much tougher than having PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress). A recent study with women Veterans looked at the impact of walking on their PTSD stress.  The women took a brisk walk four times a week for 12 weeks.

The researchers reported that at the end of 12 weeks: “Both post-traumatic and depressive symptoms improved significantly by the end of study.”  In addition, the women who were interviewed said that walking helped both their emotions and their physical health. (Shivakumar 2017)

If a basic brisk walk four times a week can help reduce post-traumatic stress in women Veterans, think what it can do for your everyday stresses.  This gives an idea of the power we are talking about.

Need a Mood Lift?  Go for a Walk (preferably in nature)

Ashland, Lithia Park
Lithia Park, a favorite place to walk in Ashland

“In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks.”  John Muir

I think we all know intuitively that time in nature can be relaxing and healing.  If you live in a city, you may find yourself drawn to the park on a sunny day, or heading for a campground in the woods on a 3-day weekend.  Surrounded by trees or flowers or desert or sky, you can feel “the weight” of many worries melt away, at least for a time.

What about the science?  Numerous studies describe the benefits of walking in nature, but this one by researchers primarily at Stanford University really intrigued me.  They compared people who took 90 minute walks in either a natural setting or an urban setting.  Here is what they found.

“Neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex, a brain region active during rumination – repetitive thought focused on negative emotions – decreased among participants who walked in nature versus those who walked in an urban environment.” (Bratman 2015/Jordan 2015)

In other words, people had fewer negative thoughts and less activity in this “mental-stress-promoting” area of the brain after walking in natural surroundings rather than along a busy street.  The study authors theorize that allowing people in cities access to natural areas could be important for maintaining positive mood and mental health as the world continues to urbanize.

So once again, hooray for Ashland parks and trails, and hooray for the commitment to planting many trees along busy streets.

Want a Brain Health Boost?  Yes, Go for a Walk!

Walking, brain
Walking stimulates new brain cells (graphic by GDJ on pixabay)

“Greater amounts of walking are associated with greater gray matter volume [in the brain], which is in turn associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment.”  (Erickson 2010)

One of the ways walking is able to boost mood is by improving brain health.  The ageing of the “baby boom” population and the increase in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease have led to a boom in brain health research.  We have learned in recent decades that the brain has significant “plasticity,” the ability to grow new cells, heal and change even in later life.  (Windle 2010)

One way walking supports brain health is by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is a protein that helps keep brain neurons healthy and even stimulates the creation of new neurons. Higher levels of BDNF are associated with better memory and overall cognitive health.  (Vaynman 2005)

Walking even increases the size of the brain, another indication of brain health.  Brain gray matter volume tends to shrink in old age, and this shrinkage is often associated with cognitive decline and dementia.

A study with 299 adults in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 65 years and older compared the amount of walking they did with their brain gray matter size 9 years later and their cognitive health 13 years later.  The people who walked the most had greater gray matter volume in all areas of the brain tested.  They also had less risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the final set of tests.  (Erickson 2010)

So the next time you go out for a walk, enjoy knowing that you are receiving mood-lifting and brain health benefits along with the physical exercise!

Another trail that leaves from an Ashland neighborhood. This trail to the Oredson-Todd Woods and beyond starts at the end of Lupine Drive, which is off Greenmeadows Way.

REFERENCES

Bratman GN et al. Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation.  PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences), June 29, 2015, described in “Stanford Researchers Find Mental Health Prescription: Nature” by Rob Jordan June 30, 2015: https://news.stanford.edu/2015/06/30/hiking-mental-health-063015/

Erickson KI et al. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood: the Cardiovascular Health Study.  Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1415-22.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20944075

Harvard Medical School Health Report  (accessed 11/10/2017)
https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/walking-for-health

Shivakumar G et al. Exercise for PTSD in Women Veterans: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Mil Med. 2017 Nov;182(11):e1809-e1814.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=shivakumar+g+2017

Vaynman S & Gomez-Pinilla F. License to run: exercise impacts functional plasticity in the intact and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins.  Neurorehabil Neural Repair.2005 Dec;19(4):283-95.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263961

Windle G, Hughes D, Linck P, Russell I, Woods B. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2010;14(6):652-669.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686977